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A boiler is a closed vessel where drinking water or other liquid is heated. The liquid will not necessarily boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating or procedures applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted elements of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3] However, ferritic stainless is often used in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4]
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age group of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was extracted from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the utilization of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode considerably slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers considerably more advanced than those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron may be used for the heating system vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose will be to produce hot water, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised warmth exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -direct approach to boiler efficiency test is more functional or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= quantity of fuel use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure steam generally, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. Heat source is in the furnace or firebox that has to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to maintain the heat of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which may be further increased by making the gases invert direction through a second parallel pipe or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be studied along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel expands from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface compared to a single tube and further boosts heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to people of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled up with drinking water are arranged in the furnace in a genuine variety of possible configurations. Water pipes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing water and top of the ones water and steam; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high vapor production rates, but less storage space capacity than the above mentioned. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/steam is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is held so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the next manner: the firebox contains an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have fulfilled with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside solid iron areas.[citation needed] These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Culture of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, design and security standards.[5]

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up poorly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When drinking water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. As a result of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising place will suffer from range corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal in to the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories could demolish entire buildings.[6]

A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and it is permitted to boil dry out can be hugely dangerous. If supply water is then sent into the unfilled boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by security steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to assist in preventing this condition from occurring, and therefore reduce their insurance promises.[7][8]

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and further heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at much higher heat range, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating flower because the higher vapor heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust heat.[citation needed] There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the give food to water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. You can find advantages to superheated vapor that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its own utilization: gains in input heat to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There can also be useful restrictions in using moist vapor, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the ruthless and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The heat range in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temperatures of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power vegetable.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is absolutely no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which vapor bubbles can form. As the fluid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the electrical generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that time may be a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This leads to somewhat less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting top of the limit of vapor pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
Protection valve: It can be used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also called a view cup, water measure or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on underneath of the boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is situated straight on the bottom of the boiler usually, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to force these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to avoid the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water also.
Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most entirely on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and become used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only once make-up water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the heat range of the makeup water.
Hand openings: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut off gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from jogging once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown range: It provides a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled a few of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater collection. This may be suited to the comparative aspect of the boiler, just below water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10]
Top feed: With this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gas oil system:fuel oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

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